Man Ray, whose real name is Emmanuel Radnitsky (born
Aug. 25, 1890, Philadelphia, Pa., died Nov. 18, 1976, Paris, France),
was a U.S. photographer, painter, and filmmaker. He grew up in New York
City, where he studied architecture, engineering, and art. With Marcel
Duchamp he formed the New York Dada group in 1917 and produced ready-mades.
In 1921 he moved to Paris and became associated with the Surrealists. He
rediscovered the technique for making “cameraless” pictures
(photograms), which he called “rayographs,” by placing objects
on light-sensitive paper; he also experimented with the technique of
solarization, which renders part of the image negative and part positive
by exposing a print or negative to a flash of light during development.
He turned to portrait and fashion photography and made a virtually
complete record of the celebrities of Parisian cultural life of the
1920s and '30s. He also made important contributions as an avant-garde
filmmaker in the 1920s.