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Rousseau, Henri [French, 1844-1910]


[ Biography | 19th Century Artists | Post-Impressionist Artists ]
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Rousseau, Henri, known as Le Douanier Rousseau (1844-1910). French painter, the most celebrated of naïve artists.

His nickname refers to the job he held with the Paris Customs Office (1871-93), although he never actually rose to the rank of ‘Douanier’ (Customs Officer). Before this he had served in the army, and he later claimed to have seen service in Mexico, but this story seems to be a product of his imagination. He took up painting as a hobby and accepted early retirement in 1893 so he could devote himself to art.

His character was extraordinarily ingenuous and he suffered much ridicule (although he sometimes interpreted sarcastic remarks literally and took them as praise) as well as enduring great poverty. However, his faith in his own abilities never wavered. He tried to paint in the academic manner of such traditionalist artists as Bouguereau and Gérôme, but it was the innocence and charm of his work that won him the admiration of the avant-garde: in 1908 Picasso gave a banquet, half serious half burlesque, in his honor. Rousseau is now best known for his jungle scenes, the first of which is Surprised! (Tropical Storm with a Tiger) (National Gallery, London, 1891) and the last The Dream (MOMA, New York, 1910). These two paintings are works of great imaginative power, in which he showed his extraordinary ability to retain the utter freshness of his vision even when working on a large scale and with loving attention to detail. He claimed such scenes were inspired by his experiences in Mexico, but in fact his sources were illustrated books and visits to the zoo and botanical gardens in Paris.

His other work ranges from the jaunty humor of The Football Players (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1908) to the mesmeric, eerie beauty of The Sleeping Gypsy (MOMA, 1897). Rousseau was buried in a pauper's grave, but his greatness began to be widely acknowledged soon after his death.


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Title: Carnival Evening
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Title: Fight Between a Tiger and a Buffalo
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File: football_players.jpg
Title: The Football Players
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File: dream.jpg
Title: The Dream
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Title: La Tour Eiffel (The Eiffel Tower)
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Title: Woman Walking in an Exotic Forest
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File: flowers.jpg
Title: Bouquet of Flowers
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File: gypsy.jpg
Title: The Sleeping Gypsy
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File: lion.jpg
Title: The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope
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Title: Scout Attacked by a Tiger
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File: rousseau_myself_port
Title: Self Portrait
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File: rousseau_surprise.jp
Title: Tiger in a Tropical Storm (Surprised!)
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